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Time200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017
CountryVariable
AustraliaEnvironmental and resource productivityCO2 ProductivityProduction-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions2.0769822.1202162.1334682.1943092.1791022.209532.2595752.2817652.3101332.3218382.4209312.5281472.5989062.6932682.8245262.846434....
Production-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capita17.5549617.6972517.9202317.9164618.382418.375518.3438918.4945918.2734118.2160817.5903617.2199116.9355216.5221615.9022516.0045....
Demand-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions2.0936962.1746212.0924742.0489141.9829191.9780112.0489172.0332792.0911242.1482062.1724732.180475............
Production-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=100100101.8823104.2725105.4377109.5608111.1144112.7577115.7454116.5223118.3149116.2534115.6558115.4765114.2814111.5327113.8034....
Production-based CO2 emissions334.7341349352.9366.7371.9377.4387.4390396389.1387.1386.5382.5373.3380.9....
Demand-based CO2 productivity, disposable income per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions1.6876051.7579211.6922041.6601681.5848911.5764521.621891.6190941.6747121.7047151.7334341.765159............
Demand-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capita17.3664617.1425218.1553719.0903620.1397120.5404920.2991420.8305220.2123719.6661119.6001319.9586............
Demand-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=10010099.99183107.1085113.9244121.4908125.4251125.6345131.2935129.9846129.0844130.6798134.9301............
Demand-based CO2 emissions330.449330.422353.939376.462401.465414.466415.158433.858429.533426.558431.83445.875............
Energy productivityEnergy productivity, GDP per unit of TPES6 742.8866 554.6936 656.6186 989.3687 091.8747 241.2377 216.4717 232.2837 108.457 232.297 380.5457 624.857 923.8798 144.4098 418.0168 652.6428 354.189..
Energy intensity, TPES per capita5.4073785.7244445.7434935.6248655.6483125.6069465.7437215.8349915.9385655.8480475.7699075.7095485.5545815.4636985.3357375.2649535.484597..
Renewable energy supply, % TPES6.1620935.8728286.0390715.9803415.7947925.6942295.6291445.6241355.5669194.3905825.4972625.5009775.5621476.2270886.545646.5413576.457681..
Renewable electricity, % total electricity generation8.3816188.0984557.8609198.4406998.186658.8037069.2993088.6480728.1152577.4979348.61187910.4266510.5926513.2641114.9067113.6378414.65372..
Total primary energy supply, index 2000=100100106.9891108.4964107.4655109.2911110.0705114.6202118.553122.9374123.3129123.7977124.4949122.9588122.6899121.493121.5404128.3467..
Total primary energy supply103.0962110.3017111.8556110.7928112.675113.4784118.169122.2236126.7438127.1309127.6307128.3495126.7658126.4886125.2546125.3036132.3205..
Energy consumption in agriculture, % total energy consumption2.3082582.2979392.5494723.1427163.0657623.1981672.977052.860612.8429322.8306322.8623412.7985582.8400472.7971912.8082392.925218....
Energy consumption in services, % total energy consumption7.2442157.1601718.0671018.5898038.5798228.6331628.6764988.8684338.8482539.2093529.1070568.9388078.8564858.8589949.0967329.642838....
Energy consumption in industry, % total energy consumption34.1921534.7694433.3872431.1159431.0095530.8325330.4205230.4017830.4378829.844829.6426429.4759429.7519730.4184929.9112729.52485....
Energy consumption in transport, % total energy consumption36.8739436.2248437.2954537.0524137.458137.5758338.2628638.2184738.4479438.6322439.169839.4954939.5412439.2131439.2546639.99819....
Energy consumption in other sectors, % total energy consumption19.3814319.5476118.7007420.0991319.8867719.7603119.6630819.650719.42319.4829819.2181719.2911919.0102618.7121918.929117.90891....
Non-energy material productivityNon-energy material productivity, GDP per unit of DMC0.9982211.0325921.128171.0698331.1416241.1395451.280841.2412141.2959121.2984011.3687061.3643081.4204011.4179951.4525331.4844481.506181
(e1.534459
Biomass, % of DMC28.038827.81823.7457729.2934625.5558928.1938823.7218825.8953427.6381125.6396625.5228625.3113726.7198724.9117226.0174625.8943625.7590925.64879
Municipal waste generated, kg per capita
(e692.338
............611.012610.404609.798611.011598.872584.742571.354558.459560.705....
Municipal waste recycled or composted, % treated waste ......30.338......36.80338.16439.47839.98542.26142.23942.21642.19342.004....
Municipal waste incinerated, % treated waste..............6.8916.856.8117.9329.10910.06311.03412.0239.391....
Municipal waste disposed to landfills, % treated waste......69.662......56.30654.98653.71152.08348.6347.69846.74945.78448.605....
Non-metallic minerals, % of DMC24.2669123.8146226.6921824.7073129.2483426.7262129.2072329.8045629.7964233.5921528.0513128.2473428.6743128.7373729.3146829.7206930.0799930.37177
Metals, % of DMC47.6942948.3673749.5620445.9992445.1957645.0799147.0708844.3001142.5654840.7681946.4258346.441344.6058246.3509144.6678744.3849544.1609243.97944
Nitrogen balance per hectare20.74420.21621.42115.92516.15815.33516.40616.86115.9416.08116.44317.04318.62718.41419.1819.897....
Phosphorus balance per hectare1.3421.3371.3850.7680.8560.7220.7990.8730.660.4890.6630.7990.8090.770.9881.059....
Environmentally adjusted multifactor productivityEnvironmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growth0.96261783.1577641.3902012.696691.3021381.155651.6388081.3220130.29727060.98986890.34191762.0117641.502857..........
Contribution of natural capital0.1519650.02654336-0.019200980.0035753010.10452530.17830970.25753060.30363290.23414780.32652770.39880930.30193050.4002108..........
Adjustment for pollution abatement-0.149224-0.2351625-0.06499745-0.071252-0.2771184-0.06940565-0.1297914-0.2206785-0.11084750.0515665-0.0076461290.1174932-0.02964613..........
Natural asset baseFreshwater resourcesTotal freshwater abstraction per capita..1 151.93......656.162......672.2008625.7667609.525716.4625869.6487824.8892765.6445696.9172..
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total available renewable resources..
(e5.73268
......
(e3.42989
......
(e3.77418
(e3.57504
(e3.53889
(e4.22306
(e5.19985
(e5.00124
(e4.70629
(e4.34256
..
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total internal renewable resources..
(e5.73268
......
(e3.42989
......
(e3.77418
(e3.57504
(e3.53889
(e4.22306
(e5.19985
(e5.00124
(e4.70629
(e4.34256
..
Total renewable freshwater per capita..............................16 048.51....
Permanent surface water, % total surface..............................0.1371....
Seasonal surface water, % total surface ..............................0.51743....
Conversion of permanent water to not-water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................12.73097....
Conversion of permanent to seasonal water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................12.68677....
Conversion of not-water to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................16.15242....
Conversion of seasonal to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................2.45778....
Wildlife resourcesThreatened mammal species, % total known species..............................27.114....
Threatened bird species, % total known species..............................16.835....
Threatened vascular plant species, % total known species..............................6.58....
Forest resourcesForests under sustainable management certification, % total forest area0
(e0
(e0
(e0
(e1.163402
4.44774
(e4.92768
(e7.328564
(e6.73218
(e6.369525
8.724651
(e8.81547
(e8.952853
(e9.156687
(e8.949414
......
Land resourcesNatural and semi-natural vegetated land, % total........86.69909....................87.04159....
Bare land, % total........4.74358....................4.37747....
Cropland, % total........8.15491....................8.16194....
Artificial surfaces, % total ........0.13706....................0.1558....
Water, % total........0.26535....................0.2632....
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992........0.83058....................0.96971....
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004..............................0.2033....
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992........0.35928....................0.89158....
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004..............................0.59834....
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to cropland, % since 1992........0.59208....................0.65605....
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to artificial surfaces, % since 1992........0.0315....................0.04666....
Conversion from cropland to artificial surfaces, % since 1992........0.11262....................0.17815....
Built up area, % total land0.13531..........................0.15224......
Built up area per capita544.57928..........................497.64234......
New built up area, % since 199011.79977..........................25.78842......
New built up area, % since 2000............................12.51224......
Environmental dimension of quality of lifeAccess to drinking water and sewage treatmentPopulation connected to public sewerage, % total population..90....87....93.69392.392.693.7949492.592.3
(e92.4
..
Population with access to improved sanitation, % total population65.452165.452165.452165.452165.452166.248667.045167.841668.638169.434670.231171.027671.824172.620673.417174.2136....
Exposure to air pollutionMean population exposure to PM2.56.4730326.7279277.3288587.5314075.5490665.740995.893785.3982575.0300015.7732524.5212834.8863345.4358085.048153..
(e5.237357
....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 10 micrograms/m34.3979282.94226321.1498914.100260.36754930.98367220.85542910.15636240.55987991.5469150.19920220.21630521.0904150.2415977..
(e2.21905
....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 35 micrograms/m300000000000000..
(e0
....
Mortality from exposure to PM2.5184.3496........154.9114........119.6692..........127.2799..
Welfare costs from exposure to PM2.5, GDP equivalent1.74835........1.437898........1.10023..........1.153195..
Economic opportunities and policy responsesTechnology and innovation: R&DEnvironmentally related government R&D budget, % total government R&D2.9500412.938141
(b2.903972
3.48473.4563431.824752.53293.0535822.9763154.2068863.9378083.5434044.0341223.8147393.7938533.481483
(en3.568152
..
Environmentally related R&D expenditure, % GDP0.03479314..0.0439222..0.1173389..0.113609..0.1121787..................
Renewable energy public RD&D budget, % total energy public RD&D..9.947913..10.6043612.3966612.4239214.6307415.9522513.7922419.2688920.2363333.643833.3967953.9258330.3955254.0553633.1041533.98769
Energy public RD&D budget, % GDP..0.02062623..0.017638610.034057130.023414130.024564640.026243280.026551730.035396150.034276660.039495190.050242330.060210650.019173390.016881860.0096728040.01129564
Fossil fuel public RD&D budget (excluding CCS), % total energy public RD&D..60.81924..54.4849417.2576222.9442524.453623.2745221.6033552.234778.76085912.930427.647754.90161126.54916.730089.35774819.49611
Technology and innovation: PatentsDevelopment of environment-related technologies, % all technologies7.998.287.988.8111.069.579.6410.0811.6312.6113.4912.6710.99.629.09......
Development of environment-related technologies, % inventions worldwide1.131.130.991.121.371.11.020.960.970.90.80.740.660.650.61......
Development of environment-related technologies, inventions per capita8.718.748.269.4712.4210.7810.6710.7511.411.6611.4511.019.648.746.97......
Relative advantage in environment-related technology1.231.221.181.251.541.271.181.141.181.131.151.070.960.930.95......
International financial flows: Official Development AssistanceEnvironmentally related ODA, % total ODA5.870783805847215.4384555816658.383338928222712.4301986694344.678259372711210.8972129821786.45991516113287.21010351181034.869426727294916.19084739685118.19837951660217.44622039794917.09521675109911.01661014556911.07365226745610.71971416473417.750911712646..
ODA - renewable energy sector, % total allocable ODA0.0253295414149800.1028200462460500000.010967741720380.005462425760920.004058165941390.0099207302555400.083202883601190.069561854004860.34858635067940.362513810396190.23444743454456..
ODA - water supply and sanitation sector, % total allocable ODA9.99992084503174.72835779190061.98921608924875.27602720260621.74800658226010.310831278562551.84949278831480.192707180976871.33840203285222.95117878913887.05321836471568.71569156646735.88234949111947.72640228271485.7664418220525.79238939285284.3840746879578..
ODA - all sectors - biodiversity, % total ODA2.56570315361021.40923500061040.896994948387150.031535323709250.05139586329460.837161898612982.45495820045473.62679672241212.47472977638246.60542297363287.0499343872077.34689140319828.14676952362064.85749769210813.11784934997564.73788404464727.9270420074463..
ODA - all sectors - climate change mitigation, % total ODA1.31956911087040.239004343748090.409633636474610.2300295233726501.41193854808810.789458811283114.27877521514891.603076577186614.559004783637.2947258949284.46564674377448.00522708892825.28208160400393.77947902679444.01908445358287.4494466781616..
ODA - all sectors - climate change adaptation, % total ODA....................011.86058044433611.9359169006357.87465858459476.30254364013678.186331748962413.16162776947..
ODA - all sectors - desertification, % total ODA1.5856587886810.230601504445080.49441471695900.003471862524750.216053619980810.608192145824432.62774014472960.721575260162353.102312088012710.3301897048953.27418661117556.55223989486692.93253207206732.00892901420593.14511203765875.3543581962585..
Net ODA provided, % GNI0.2666440.2518970.2556040.24720.2451410.2475740.2950750.3225920.3160080.2936230.3227270.3435660.360930.3308980.3143110.2911120.2658270.225974
ODA - environment sector, % total allocable ODA5.18583965301511.67779815196991.42260944843291.48399770259860.021504940465091.73187673091890.605940103530883.13897752761842.13275122642521.45218718051913.25058364868163.7548103332524.4274811744694.50134086608891.78807735443111.3343981504440.73281353712082..
Environmental taxes and transfersEnvironmentally related taxes, % GDP
(ei2.4138366487617
(ei2.6031038274386
(ei2.54112453737
(ei2.4113907572884
(ei2.3258211292956
(ei2.1718663822419
(ei2.072703561542
(ei2.022443005813
(ei1.905663288984
(ei1.9098914448302
(ei1.8617342938793
(ei1.7931586747313
(ei2.0732363896614
(ei2.0776725912335
(ei1.9111832639772
(ei1.8154205182764
(ei1.7689759419887
..
Environmentally related taxes, % total tax revenue
(ei7.9318431906255
(ei9.0068875803698
(ei8.5344228869468
(ei8.0390745807457
(ei7.6740987974416
(ei7.2387480794915
(ei7.0383116455128
(ei6.8370991384299
(ei7.0855950759266
(ei7.4573122897925
(ei7.3442529665437
(ei6.9043931902721
(ei7.6778031550433
(ei7.6307503935631
(ei6.969186515924
(ei6.5056968627055
(ei6.4325690752746
..
Energy related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenue
(ei73.15467
(ei65.11288
(ei65.28892
(ei63.56799
(ei63.46073
(ei63.40463
(ei64.34262
(ei62.9541
(ei62.16273
(ei61.62992
(ei60.94041
(ei61.21088
(ei64.5703
(ei64.53326
(ei60.90099
(ei57.97707
(ei57.96915
..
Road transport-related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenue
(ei26.11701
(ei34.25531
(ei34.06031
(ei35.6303
(ei35.67595
(ei35.65667
(ei34.76817
(ei35.88099
(ei36.57367
(ei36.95941
(ei37.22511
(ei36.54993
(ei33.02097
(ei33.04479
(ei36.64967
(ei39.14528
(ei39.28283
..
Petrol tax, USD per litre0.36807650.32680680.31734490.30890380.30183110.29391930.28382840.27737230.26580880.26118290.25377680.24566070.24140510.23563240.23066670.23214360.2321514..
Diesel tax, USD per litre0.36807650.32680680.31734490.30890380.30183110.29391930.28382840.27737220.26580880.26118290.25377680.24566070.24140510.23563240.23066670.23214360.2321514..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % energy related tax revenue41.2830141.0294824.8327844.3967844.2114443.9071945.2258846.2602949.0260344.6486443.3095344.8353934.1754933.1127539.6221743.8849443.28169..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % total tax revenue2.3954522.4062331.3836912.2687992.1531142.0152092.0481151.9911512.15942.0520231.9383691.8948511.6942771.6305951.6816851.6552581.613934..
Petrol tax, % end-user price46.4406843.6926644.4574142.6174539.0769234.0178629.6613530.3973326.2498428.6089729.0307925.70225.5753325.2647425.1144529.0990731.77471..
Diesel tax, % end-user price45.9731642.1460244.1995341.8221738.131.8030128.3060929.1710823.9205228.3482129.8168825.6825125.4442225.0221824.6477930.2874733.58129..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % total fossil fuel support95.1582892.3446788.5028292.7927188.9051286.3313786.9289185.3963390.5588291.4602791.7863890.5797799.4558796.3253699.668499.6667299.08864..
Fossil fuel production support, % total fossil fuel support4.7855717.60009311.41095.64277511.0189613.5759512.9457614.541328.8807218.2807628.009449.1246820.027284873.2198870.13719810.1918380.1891372..
Fossil fuel general services support, % total fossil fuel support0.056150210.055234210.086290371.5645150.075918470.092675630.12532480.062340330.56045410.25896990.20418140.29555020.51684190.45474970.19440520.14144970.7222213..
Petroleum support, % total fossil fuel support95.5215895.629393.7453895.0562796.9033697.2207497.8163698.118997.8461398.3438198.2185495.7425798.0167294.9909998.3935598.1172297.56226..
Coal support, % total fossil fuel support2.1915812.3733223.1517843.0372251.3810621.218310.81230190.68121471.1115950.38364040.26894622.8671730.064863633.2836060.18262830.18976910.5725518..
Gas support, % total fossil fuel support2.2868431.9973843.1028331.906511.7155871.5609451.3713431.1998791.0422691.2725471.512511.3902661.9184271.7253971.4238111.6930161.865181..
Total fossil fuel support, % of total tax revenue2.5173352.6057091.5634432.4450182.4218112.3342722.356082.3316592.3845282.2436222.1118262.0919141.7035471.6927991.687281.6607931.628778..
Socio-economic contextReal GDP per capita36 461.3337 521.9838 232.2439 314.2540 057.1240 601.2341 449.3942 200.342 213.9942 294.7742 585.0643 534.4544 013.8344 498.644 916.3245 555.7545 819.36
(e46 240.15
Population density, inhabitants per km22.4628982.4890822.5157782.5444272.576912.6144332.657672.7058612.7569932.8082192.8574392.9039092.9480952.9905793.032425
(b3.074394
....
Labour tax revenue, % GDP12.78707176330813.15018738066113.01505044180113.15323706842713.43741523419313.17207105899812.28197858711712.19952075194511.45537996780210.90947297343211.06690777891811.53959568059411.95481447722612.01260581940612.67245721667912.932477585283
(e13.093929182818
..
Real GDP, Index 2000=100100104.003107.1083111.3938114.9476118.2055122.6705127.1575129.6024132.2631135.505140.7787144.4946148.1913151.6754155.9638159.0169
(e162.6371
Value added in agriculture, % of total value added3.83765673637394.31446409225463.1674232482913.35834980010993.14222049713132.96387600898742.39034700393682.53398132324222.45658302307132.36490392684942.4406783580782.40782380104062.43535304069522.37500023841862.54322266578672.61464428901672.9818742275238..
Value added in industry, % of total value added25.94430541992225.82520675659226.38643264770526.20840072631826.7615089416527.80469322204627.75459098815927.62695693969728.82238197326726.92806434631428.19433784484927.91712570190426.71389770507827.19173049926825.24150657653823.9438476562524.841438293457..
Value added in services, % of total value added70.21804046630969.86032867431670.44614410400470.43325042724670.09626770019569.23143005371169.8550643920969.83905792236368.72103118896570.7070312569.3649826049869.67504882812570.85074615478570.43326568603572.21527099609473.44150543212972.176689147949..
Labour tax revenue, % total tax revenue42.24948139514945.75147242720643.95331835937244.08147655533844.53369677810744.08483627757141.86435720927841.4028073299942.7275062066642.66606899541143.69759319491544.55211671638844.38789360004444.23395664023646.34302031578746.498269875463
(e46.590384541939
..
AustriaEnvironmental and resource productivityCO2 ProductivityProduction-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions4.8779774.6189274.6047844.3275764.3735514.4475574.7551935.1032595.1703275.4294435.1187245.4181815.7026185.6774186.0645375.982666....
Production-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capita7.6710728.1751138.2980798.8675788.9694238.9778468.654478.3375618.3228867.5985328.1688967.8961087.5021597.4844527.0193977.155485....
Demand-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions3.1867733.2678133.1901573.1813693.2693753.3416043.6402063.7350793.7414393.9475483.7334963.696642............
Production-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=100100106.9467109.0468117.1244119.063119.7092115.832111.9548112.1163102.7464110.9855107.916103.231103.715797.89983100.3231....
Production-based CO2 emissions61.966.267.572.573.774.171.769.369.463.668.766.863.964.260.662.1....
Demand-based CO2 productivity, disposable income per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions2.5979372.6441392.6073462.6036062.6832542.7362633.0137523.0903173.1131283.2158123.0733373.032458............
Demand-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capita11.8174211.6353712.0562412.1267612.0436611.9538811.2824911.356711.4763610.4389111.2239211.61597............
Demand-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=10010098.83708102.9194103.9841103.9229103.853198.5286699.50357100.871491.9726299.12121102.9205............
Demand-based CO2 emissions94.67693.57597.4498.44898.3998.32493.28394.20695.50187.07693.84497.441............
Energy productivityEnergy productivity, GDP per unit of TPES10 555.6310 116.0210 198.059 764.6249 871.8589 825.24710 136.9610 647.1810 740.8210 912.8310 396.511 015.3611 137.8710 962.2611 482.4711 329.0811 317.08..
Energy intensity, TPES per capita3.5449633.7327193.7468813.9300153.9737434.0639684.0597643.9962434.0064023.7804874.021963.8838993.8411263.8762413.7073373.7786723.822814..
Renewable energy supply, % TPES22.9820922.0320121.2674218.7651419.754820.9476721.9227423.8991125.0226227.6067426.927426.2482429.7154829.9326430.0041529.431830.04848..
Renewable electricity, % total electricity generation72.5440169.1568369.0129560.7828364.2022363.6267865.5155368.6870369.2308971.1396966.2113265.6314274.5291878.0247981.0568776.4907877.65388..
Total primary energy supply, index 2000=100100105.6679106.5491112.3262114.1449117.26117.5799116.1181116.7868110.6188118.2456114.8643114.3739116.2357111.8893114.6424116.4291..
Total primary energy supply28.6052930.2266230.4786832.1312232.6514733.5425733.6340733.215933.407231.6428233.8244832.8572632.7169733.2495532.0062632.793833.30487..
Energy consumption in agriculture, % total energy consumption2.2256692.1579872.0915852.0323312.0265551.9882141.9157691.9379531.9410121.8503181.8292121.8579141.8685771.9636882.0037322.039945....
Energy consumption in services, % total energy consumption10.7962111.7460711.4753312.0379811.676112.1808912.9472411.4396512.7116512.0290912.0343111.328611.1859210.5009910.591210.09736....
Energy consumption in industry, % total energy consumption25.7305724.9829124.258524.3442625.3321226.1820826.4624827.1636227.526727.4498127.4560628.7128228.1047227.7442827.8935227.74644....
Energy consumption in transport, % total energy consumption27.4195127.8169730.0853730.530330.4371730.9590530.0988231.2141229.7194430.1603729.4878429.9741429.5574330.1838330.9360931.16883....
Energy consumption in other sectors, % total energy consumption33.8280333.2960632.0892231.0551330.5280628.6897728.5756828.2446628.1011828.5104129.1925628.1265229.2833529.607228.5754528.94742....
Non-energy material productivityNon-energy material productivity, GDP per unit of DMC1.8731481.97261.8672962.0182761.9458321.9348011.9284941.9590852.2534762.2995532.4490972.3710352.4626932.4566622.4332612.502105
(e2.502263
..
Biomass, % of DMC22.4242923.4693122.1922622.3799824.1587923.459523.494122.4729727.3635827.3080127.9924728.6976727.5753428.1408929.8071927.48652
(e28.07302
..
Municipal waste generated, kg per capita535.488532.123564.146563.489570.38573.286595.372595.672599.26587.93558.957568.201573.322571.849559.756557.229565.694..
Municipal waste recycled or composted, % treated waste 55.2755.90756.93857.374
(b58.119
59.91160.40161.30664.6163.60460.94258.80359.72659.6458.27558.19858.808..
Municipal waste incinerated, % treated waste11.00310.97110.99411.9629.83828.46629.57129.90327.75830.08635.71236.23335.8836.16537.57238.76438.452..
Municipal waste disposed to landfills, % treated waste33.13732.4731.36329.9612.04311.62310.0298.7917.6326.313.3464.9644.3944.1954.1533.0372.74..
Non-metallic minerals, % of DMC73.6368872.3588374.0224873.4099771.9909171.9955671.5289972.1518667.3544368.2111965.5401264.4293465.8602366.3325966.0216467.46095
(e66.77917
..
Metals, % of DMC3.9388334.1718573.785264.2100533.8503034.5449314.9769055.3751675.2819854.4808026.4674096.8729886.5644375.5265254.171185.052517
(e5.147803
..
Nitrogen balance per hectare4440373831192631302126283041304132..
Phosphorus balance per hectare
(e4
(e3
(e3
(e3
(e0
(e1
(e2
(e3
(e-2
(e0
(e1
(e0
(e2
(e4
(e2
......
Environmentally adjusted multifactor productivityEnvironmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growth2.2566070.77663591.2090740.082679622.5428371.8277352.531723.1242640.8865969-1.3832720.97839772.1282740.38185840.1740605........
Contribution of natural capital0.0006263368-0.0033600380.0060121270.008176528-0.001721717-0.022252450.011767450.002133108-0.014839310.010388430.00006765333-0.0025412190.003124861-0.008768748........
Adjustment for pollution abatement0.074833060.15866980.090952750.016904580.70658930.03312712-0.06614050.52793620.45618421.011176-0.30220240.4972035-0.073453210.07785322........
Natural asset baseFreshwater resourcesTotal renewable freshwater per capita..............................
(e9 641.722
....
Permanent surface water, % total surface..............................0.69553....
Seasonal surface water, % total surface ..............................0.10242....
Conversion of permanent water to not-water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................0.70299....
Conversion of permanent to seasonal water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................1.75747....
Conversion of not-water to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................4.39367....
Conversion of seasonal to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984..............................0.70299....
Wildlife resourcesThreatened mammal species, % total known species..............................26.733....
Threatened bird species, % total known species..............................27.273....
Threatened vascular plant species, % total known species..............................33.39....
Forest resourcesForest resource stocks1 067........1 102........1 129........1 155....
Intensity of use of forest resources..........0.768........................
Forests under sustainable management certification, % total forest area14.33038
(e79.41467
(e102.2794
(e102.2279
(e102.1588
102.0974
(e102.9158
(e102.8633
(e52.98439
(e50.82914
50.79793
(e61.74348
(e68.60001
(e70.92591
(e71.95322
......
Land resourcesNatural and semi-natural vegetated land, % total........70.81907....................70.55664....
Bare land, % total........2.84305....................2.84534....
Cropland, % total........22.79681....................22.96511....
Artificial surfaces, % total ........2.69767....................2.78695....
Water, % total........0.8434....................0.84597....
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992........2.27922....................2.83221....
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004..............................0.60679....
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992........1.45218....................1.63766....
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004..............................0.23622....
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to cropland, % since 1992........1.63522....................2.10208....
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to artificial surfaces, % since 1992........0.50652....................0.57943....
Conversion from cropland to artificial surfaces, % since 1992........4.49063....................4.62778....
Built up area, % total land3.0466..........................3.51274......
Built up area per capita315.21642..........................339.70501......
New built up area, % since 199015.31339..........................32.95697......
New built up area, % since 2000............................15.30054......
Environmental dimension of quality of lifeAccess to drinking water and sewage treatmentPopulation connected to public sewerage, % total population85.4000015258798686
(e88.900001525879
(e88.900001525879
..
(e91.809997558594
..
(e92.720001220703
..93.900001525879..94.5..94.967610483771......
Population connected to sewerage with primary treatment, % total population..00..
(e0
..
(e0
..
(e0
..
(e0
..0..0......
Population connected to sewerage with secondary treatment, % total population..8.6000003814697....5.4899997711182..
(e3.6199998855591
..
(e0.93999999761581
..
(e1.2737938165665
..1..1.1946570566625......
Population connected to sewerage with tertiary treatment, % total population..
(e77.400001525879
....
(e83.410003662109
..
(e88.180000305176
..
(e91.73999786377
..
(e92.588897705078
..93.5..93.772953427109......
Population with access to improved sanitation, % total population96.7821496.782296.7825696.7820896.7814796.7808696.7801896.7795796.7789696.7783496.7776696.7770596.7764496.7767996.7782296.78062....
Population with access to improved drinking water sources, % total population 97.8301597.8874797.9447998.0021198.0594298.1167498.1740698.2313898.2886898.3460198.4033398.4606498.5179698.5752998.632698.68991....
Exposure to air pollutionMean population exposure to PM2.516.4490114.5121317.5312118.0697815.1077117.6611417.9391914.2825515.3851616.6551915.6253815.4506515.4703617.68641..
(e15.69556
....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 10 micrograms/m399.8200683.4903399.9740499.9985799.1344899.1971499.969595.2565299.9986699.7717190.6357493.6355299.9054399.99922..
(e86.52994
....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 35 micrograms/m300000000000000..
(e0
....
Mortality from exposure to PM2.5473.3345........407.2726........383.7776..........375.3761..
Welfare costs from exposure to PM2.5, GDP equivalent4.465825........3.792968........3.541337..........3.440295..
Economic opportunities and policy responsesTechnology and innovation: R&DEnvironmentally related government R&D budget, % total government R&D1.5289681.3794341.3048541.6634051.3755411.6078541.6264251.6222211.629611.8741051.7699312.0088912.3585812.3399320.94508960.7169405
(en0.681097
..
Environmentally related R&D expenditure, % GDP....0.1037262..0.1457947..0.17274220.1989595..0.2253662..0.2681516..
(c..
........
Renewable energy public RD&D budget, % total energy public RD&D28.0207526.5332133.1768339.6805728.4606736.0327432.6422846.4780734.3768935.297527.80427.124823.4968923.6658522.6504417.2246221.63825..
Energy public RD&D budget, % GDP0.010918210.013545850.012869640.010774490.013837110.013224440.015830890.011228340.024226080.03203330.040885560.0389590.037690210.038453560.042965190.03727650.03987977..
Fossil fuel public RD&D budget (excluding CCS), % total energy public RD&D1.908072.119041..1.8453291.3449040.61607141.9906132.5246193.1067770.4400130.28269370.49080060.46211113.9107220.26554671.3573180.8027312..
Technology and innovation: PatentsDevelopment of environment-related technologies, % all technologies10.289.568.538.758.789.839.4610.7912.4612.2113.4713.7413.929.9710.42......
Development of environment-related technologies, % inventions worldwide1.341.291.081.091.031.081.011.071.0811.010.981.050.810.94......
Development of environment-related technologies, inventions per capita24.4723.621.4722.2222.5625.826.4230.1732.3933.5838.2438.840.629.4629.19......
Relative advantage in environment-related technology1.581.411.261.241.221.311.161.221.261.11.151.161.230.971.09......
International financial flows: Official Development AssistanceEnvironmentally related ODA, % total ODA3.47106075286874.13234424591066.122055530548115.48032188415513.9593801498414.86470842361454.64078426361087.88666772842415.396845817565912.497607231147.260133743286112.9020528793336.500798225402818.2392158508311.5404148101819.44664859771738.0726566314697..
ODA - renewable energy sector, % total allocable ODA2.49909996986391.76470518112188.42655849456790.096689186990260.168294474482541.53599905967710.972564220428471.27966690063480.562184751033782.9051272869111.24487340450291.56198656558991.37696468830111.4291329383852.42520260810855.40690994262694.232048034668..
ODA - water supply and sanitation sector, % total allocable ODA7.23894262313845.45660305023196.881227970123311.03253269195611.0337057113657.4522509574898.33473396301277.09976434707649.16641330718997.07070302963264.93107223510747.18085479736339.23301410675057.49943256378177.63966226577766.98886251449585.1288828849792..
ODA - all sectors - biodiversity, % total ODA1.17214596271521.03084099292751.5709341764451.24446511268622.29595422744751.0552729368211.38901162147521.06471729278562.51938223838815.67813491821292.34232258796693.39706373214722.19393634796147.16056060791023.41618132591252.08090281486511.8158853054047..
ODA - all sectors - climate change mitigation, % total ODA1.06588315963750.839876532554630.771096885204320.300746172666552.37536954879761.07123434543612.23066067695620.700691282749182.49244427680975.37649965286253.12039852142335.77831411361692.120900630950910.6827106475837.11903715133674.87110042572024.5360383987427..
ODA - all sectors - climate change adaptation, % total ODA....................0.716876327991492.80683898925781.70069122314457.02602767944345.00408887863162.80093050003052.3693840503693..
ODA - all sectors - desertification, % total ODA0.337397217750550.481158077716831.37445616722112.21651482582091.72286510467530.935222446918491.5594105720520.854667782783511.71151149272924.16982746124271.05740237236022.26202535629271.88917541503913.2673747539520.638320505619050.962852358818050.74518597126007..
Net ODA provided, % GNI0.2344360.3415610.2551240.2016130.2329080.5217810.4688660.4980590.4282750.3020390.3224220.2671270.2802160.2735210.2843690.3537490.4237110.302443
ODA - environment sector, % total allocable ODA3.21690487861631.03559565544131.51126396656041.35727548599242.40220689773563.27647495269771.85026788711551.07829976081850.892887532711032.5355148315430.82410013675691.84455657005310.763764023780822.40942215919492.90883708000180.782735824584961.5309573411941..
Environmental taxes and transfersEnvironmentally related taxes, % GDP
(i2.9275072568423
(i3.1718129708177
(i3.2221854441896
(i3.3043780044433
(i3.2529497779959
(i3.1967889589477
(i2.9728918254795
(i2.8857367694234
(i2.8473849241836
(i2.8555767067868
(i2.829013391058
(i2.9096320275698
(i2.8756537792426
(i2.8571556035451
(i2.875425545439
(i2.7271582790631
(i2.7104829427603
..
Environmentally related taxes, % total tax revenue
(i6.9232314335295
(i7.2274066811612
(i7.5465819577457
(i7.7917099429857
(i7.7529177423403
(i7.7947961965873
(i7.3571595464018
(i7.1169057158801
(i6.8792187612015
(i6.9681706370872
(i6.9071696482467
(i7.0761843367712
(i6.8850415547086
(i6.7014407998016
(i6.7324589821617
(i6.3300635177977
(i6.4233406968503
..
Energy related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenue
(i52.58306
(i51.96834
(i52.02695
(i52.32998
(i54.9271
(i53.5591
(i53.02224
(i54.33652
(i55.02997
(i54.23372
(i54.77601
(i55.50203
(i54.89649
(i55.03777
(i52.46004
(i55.5234
(i54.91612
..
Road transport-related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenue
(i45.97172
(i46.48619
(i46.44471
(i46.13596
(i44.08221
(i45.60061
(i45.81263
(i44.53446
(i43.94676
(i44.78948
(i44.3393
(i43.65253
(i44.16643
(i43.9988
(i46.55763
(i43.45885
(i44.05502
..
Petrol tax, USD per litre0.59564660.58167110.56995130.56368690.56561130.55289940.54656890.56262020.58983960.58663350.57637510.60447030.59015740.55864010.53441760.52971150.5250304..
Diesel tax, USD per litre0.41724040.40646890.39786460.39390170.41256350.41239790.42960620.45226640.46959960.46711890.45888160.5021910.49040370.46399070.44371220.43982290.4359361..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % energy related tax revenue3.544274.6653675.66725310.5489511.7645814.0376315.8468414.0150214.7652115.6318614.862614.7264513.6898511.6521811.8722611.8516312.00571..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % total tax revenue0.12902720.17522950.22251090.43012290.5009890.58604620.61817430.5419720.55895660.59074340.56232240.57837050.51742790.42976990.41931050.41654540.4234954..
Petrol tax, % end-user price43.1399844.7680746.136746.0599343.8144340.031438.0460638.8621138.8540744.3241539.2762737.3027835.0005635.2187235.3428339.5547742.57238..
Diesel tax, % end-user price37.2750738.7700540.1947139.8899638.3189133.4388233.2139234.8188131.1809639.6615934.9271832.8145630.979631.0686931.518836.5498739.77242..
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Legend:
bBreak
cNon-publishable and confidential value
eEstimated value
iIncomplete data
nNational estimate
Data extracted on 17 Aug 2019 17:22 UTC (GMT) from MyOECD

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